RFC 454 File Transfer Protocol - meeting announcement and a new proposed document

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Network Working Group                                        A. McKenzie
Request for Comments: 454                                            BBN
NIC: 14333                                              16 February 1973

                         FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL

            Meeting Announcement and a New Proposed Document

   Attached is a new proposal for a File Transfer Protocol.  The
   document is an extensive update to RFC 354 and, I believe,
   incorporates solutions to most of the objections to RFC 354.

   It now seems appropriate to make another attempt to reach final
   agreement on FTP.  Accordingly, I am calling a meeting of interested
   parties, to be held at BBN on March 16, for discussion of this and
   other proposals.

   This note is directed to the network community at large, rather than
   specifically to the old FTP committee, because I don't believe that
   the FTP committee membership includes all the individuals who have
   contributed to the current state of FTP design.  Nevertheless, it is
   intended that the meeting proceed from the current state, rather than
   bringing new members up-to-speed.  Prospective attendees should
   therefore be familiar with at least the following documents:

      RFC 354
      RFC 385
      RFC 414
      RFC 418
      RFC 438

   Anyone wishing to attend this meeting should contact Alex McKenzie
   (NIC Ident aam) at BBN, 50 Moulton Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02138.
   My telephone number is:

                             (617) 491-1850 ext.441

   When there is some indication of the number of individuals planning
   to attend, a meeting room will be reserved and more specific
   information will be directed to attendees.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972


   This document is the outcome of a meeting held 25 January 1973 in
   Cambridge, Massachusetts, by the following people:

      Abhay Bhushan (MIT - DMCG)

      Bob Bressler (BBN - NET)

      Bob Clements (BBN - TENEX)

      Alex McKenzie (BBN - NET)

      Nancy Neigus (BBN - NET)

      Ken Pogran (MIT - MULTICS)

      Marc Seriff (MIT - DMCG)

   The basis of the document is RFC 354 with considerations drawn from
   RFC's 385, 414, 418, and 438 and personal communication with network

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972



   The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol for file transfer
   between HOSTs (including terminal IMPs), on the ARPA Computer Network
   (ARPANET).  The primary function of FTP is to transfer files
   efficiently and reliably among HOSTs and to allow the convenient use
   of remote file storage capabilities.

   The objectives of FTP are 1) to promote sharing of files (computer
   programs and/or data), 2) to encourage indirect or implicit (via
   programs) use of remote computers, 3) to shield a user from
   variations in file storage systems among HOSTs, and 4) to transfer
   data reliably and efficiently.  FTP, though usable directly by a user
   at a terminal, is designed mainly for use by programs.

   The attempt in this specification is to satisfy the diverse needs of
   users of maxi-HOSTs, mini-HOSTs, TIPs, and the Datacomputer, with a
   simple, elegant, and easily implemented protocol design.

   This paper assumes knowledge of the following protocols:

      1) The HOST-HOST Protocol (NIC #8246)

      2) The Initial Connection Protocol (NIC #7101)

      3) The TELNET Protocol (NWG/RFC #318, NIC #9348)


   In this section, the terminology and the FTP model are discussed.
   The terms defined in this section are only those that have special
   significance in FTP.

II.A  Terminology

   ASCII               The USASCII character set as defined in NIC
                       #7104.  In FTP, ASCII characters are defined to
                       be the lower half of an eight bit code set (i.e.,
                       the most significant bit is zero).

   access controls     Access controls define users' access privileges
                       to the use of a system, and to the files in that
                       system.  Access controls are necessary to prevent
                       unauthorized or accidental use of files.  It is
                       the prerogative of a server-FTP process to
                       provide access controls.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   byte size           The byte size specified for the transfer od data.
                       The data connection is opened with this byte
                       size.  Data connection byte size is not
                       necessarily the byte size in which data is to be
                       stored in a system, and may not be related to the
                       structure of data.

   data connection     A simplex connection over which data is
                       transferred, in a specified byte size, mode and
                       type.  The data transferred may be a part of a
                       file, an entire file or a number of files.  The
                       data connection may be in either direction
                       (server-to-user or user-to-server).

   data socket         The socket on which a User-FTP process "listens"
                       for a data connection.

   EOF                 The end-of-file condition that defines the end of
                       a file being transferred.

   EOR                 The end-of-record condition that defines the end
                       of a record being transferred.

   error recovery      A procedure that allows a user to recover from
                       certain errors such as failure of either HOST
                       system or transfer process.  In FTP, error
                       recovery may involve restarting a file transfer
                       at a given checkpoint.

   FTP commands        A set of commands that comprise the control
                       information flowing from the user-FTP to the
                       server-FTP process.

   file                An ordered set of computer data (including
                       programs) of arbitrary length uniquely identified
                       by a pathname.

   mode                The mode in which data is to be transferred via
                       the data connection.  The mode defines the data
                       format including EOR and EOF.  The transfer modes
                       defined in FTP are described in Section III.C.

   NVT                 The Network Virtual Terminal as defined in the
                       ARPANET TELNET Protocol.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   NVFS                The Network Virtual File System.  A concept which
                       defines a standard network file system with
                       standard commands and pathname conventions.  FTP
                       only partially embraces the NVFS concept at this

   pathname            Pathname is defined to be the character string
                       which must be input to a file system by a user in
                       order to identify a file.  Pathname normally
                       contains device and/or directory names, and file
                       name specification.  FTP does not yet specify a
                       standard pathname convention.  Each user must
                       follow the file naming conventions of the file
                       systems he wishes to use.

   record              A sequential file may be structured as a number
                       of contiguous parts called records.  Record
                       structures are supported by FTP but are not

   reply               A reply is an acknowledgement (positive or
                       negative) sent from server to user via the TELNET
                       connections in response to FTP commands.  The
                       general form of a reply is a completion code
                       (including error codes) followed by an ASCII text
                       string.  The codes are for use by programs and
                       the text is for human users.

   server-FTP process  A process or set of processes which perform the
                       function of file transfer in cooperation with a
                       user-FTP process.  The server-FTP process must
                       interpret and respond to user commands and
                       initiate the data connection.

   server site         A HOST site which has a server-FTP process.

   server-TELNET       A TELNET process which listens on a specified
                       socket for an ICP initiated by a user-TELNET, and
                       performs in accordance with the ARPANET TELNET

   TELNET connections  The full-duplex communication path between a
                       user-TELNET and a server-TELNET.  The TELNET
                       connections are established via the standard
                       ARPANET Initial Connection Protocol (ICP).

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   type                The data representation type used for data
                       transfer and storage.  Type implies certain
                       transformations between the time of data storage
                       and data transfer.  The representation types
                       defined in FTP are described in Section III.B.

   user                A process on behalf of a human being or a human
                       being wishing to obtain file transfer service.

   user site           A HOST site satisfying any of the following
                       conditions: 1) The site where a user is located,
                       2) a site where a user-FTP process is located, 3)
                       a site to which a data connection is made by a
                       server.  In the normal case, the sites defined by
                       1, 2, and 3 are the same site, but nothing in FTP
                       requires that this be so.

   user-FTP process    A process or set of processes which perform the
                       function of file transfer in cooperation with a
                       server-FTP process.  The user-FTP process 1)
                       initiates the ICP (via a user-TELNET), 2)
                       initiates FTP commands and 3) "listens" on the
                       data socket for the data connection.  In some
                       obvious cases (use from TIPs and other mini-
                       HOSTs) a user-FTP process will be subsumed under
                       the term "user".

   user-TELNET         A TELNET process which initiates an ICP to a
                       specified server-TELNET socket, and performs in
                       accordance with the ARPANET TELNET protocol.

II.B  The FTP Model

   With the above definitions in mind, the following model (shown in
   Figure 1) may be diagramed for an FTP service.

   In the model described in Figure 1, the user-TELNET initiates the
   TELNET connections.  Standard FTP commands are then generated by the
   user and transmitted to the server site via the TELNET connections.
   FTP commands are in ASCII, in accordance with NVT conventions and the
   TELNET protocol.  Note that commands may be initiated by the user
   directly through the user-TELNET or via a user-FTP process.  Standard
   replies are sent from the server to the user in response to the
   commands over the TELNET connections.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   The FTP commands specify the parameters for the data connection (data
   socket, byte size, transfer mode, representation type, and format)
   and the nature of file system operation (store, retrieve, append,
   delete, etc.). The user-FTP process or its designate should "listen"
   on the specified data socket, and it is the server's responsibility
   to initiate the data connection and data transfer in accordance with
   the specified data connection parameters.  It should be noted that
   the data socket need not be in the same HOST that initiates the FTP
   commands via the TELNET connections, but the user or his user-FTP
   process must ensure a "listen" on the specified data socket.  A
   practical example of such file transfer to third HOSTs is a maxi-HOST
   user (who may actually be a TIP user) wishing to transmit a file to
   or from an I/O device attached to a TIP.  It should also be noted
   that two data connections, one for send and the other for receive,
   may exist simultaneously.

+-----+   +-------+   +------+           +------+   +-------+   +-----+
| File|<->|Server-|<->|Server|<----------|User  |<->|User-  |<->|File |
|Sys  |   |FTP    |   |TELNET|  FTP Cmds |TELNET|   |FTP    |   |Sys- |
| -tem|   |Process|   |      |---------->|      |   |Process|   | tem |
+-----+   |       |   +------+FTP Replies+------+   |       |   +-----+
          |       |                                 |       |
          |       |<------------------------------->|Data   |
          |       |         Data Connection(s)      |Socket |
          +-------+                                 +-------+
                                                    |      |
                                                    | USER |
                                                    |      |

   Notes:  1.  The data connection may be in either direction.

           2. The data connection need not exist all of the time.

           3. The distinctions between user-FTP and user-TELNET, and
               between server-FTP and server-TELNET may not be as
               clear-cut as shown above.  For example, a user-TELNET may
               be directly driven by the user.

               FIGURE 1  Model for FTP Use

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   The protocol requires that the TELNET connections be open while data
   transfer is in progress.  It is the responsibility of the user to
   close the TELNET connections when finished using the FTP service.
   The server may abort data transfer if the TELNET connections are


   Data and files are transferred only via the data connection.  The
   transfer of data is governed by FTP data transfer commands received
   on the TELNET connections.  The data transfer functions include
   establishing the data connection to the specified data socket in the
   specified HOST (using the specified byte size), transmitting and
   receiving data in the specified representation type and transfer
   mode, handling EOR and EOF conditions, and error recovery (where

III.A  Establishing Data Connection

   The user site shall "listen" on the specified data socket, prior to
   sending a transfer request command.  The FTP request command
   determines the direction of data transfer, and the socket number (odd
   or even) which is to be used in establishing the data connection.
   The server on receiving the appropriate store or retrieve request
   shall initiate the data connection to the specified user data socket
   in the specified byte size (default byte size is 8 bits), and send a
   reply indicating that file transfer may proceed.  Prior to this
   reply, the server should send a reply indicating the server socket
   for the data connection.  The user may use this server socket
   information to ensure the security of his data transfer.  The server
   may send this reply either before or after initiating the data

   The byte size for the data connection is specified by the BYTE
   command.  It is not required by the protocol that servers accept all
   possible byte sizes.  The use of various byte sizes is for efficiency
   in data transfer and servers may implement only those byte sizes for
   which their data transfer is efficient.  It is, however, required
   that servers implement at least the byte size of 8 bits.

   After the data transfer is completed, it is the server's
   responsibility to close the data connection, except when the user is
   sending the data.  In stream mode the sender must close the data
   connection to indicate EOF, i.e., completion of the transfer.
   Closing the connection is a server option except under the following

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   1)       The server receives an abort command from the user.

   2)       The socket or the byte size specification is changed by the

   3)       The TELNET connections are closed.

   4)       An irrecoverable error condition occurs.

   It should be noted that if none of the above conditions occur it is
   possible to maintain two simultaneous data connections, for send and

III.B  Data Representation and Storage

   Data is transferred from a storage device in sending HOST to a
   storage device in receiving HOST.  Often it is necessary to perform
   certain transformations on the data because data storage representa-
   tions in the two systems are different.  For example, NVT-ASCII has
   different data storage representations in different systems.  PDP-10'
   s generally store NVT-ASCII as five 7-bit ASCII characters, left-
   justified in a 36-bit word. 360's store NVT-ASCII as 8-bit EBCDIC
   codes.  Multics stores NVT-ASCII as four 9-bit characters in a 36-bit
   word.  It may be desirable to convert characters into the standard
   NVT-ASCII representation when transmitting text between dissimilar
   systems.  The sending and receiving sites would have to perform the
   necessary transformations between the standard representation and
   their internal representations.

   A different problem in representation arises when transmitting binary
   data (not character codes) between HOST systems with different word
   lengths.  It is not always clear how the sender should send data, and
   the receiver store it.  For example, when transmitting 32-bit bytes
   from a 32-bit word-length system to a 36-bit word-length system, it
   may be desirable (for reasons of efficiency and usefulness) to store
   the 32-bit bytes right-justified in a 36-bit word in the latter sys-
   tem.  In any case, the user should have the option of specifying data
   representation and transformation functions.  It should be noted that
   FTP provides for very limited data type representations.  Transforma-
   tions desired beyond this limited capability should be performed by
   the user directly or via the use of the Data Reconfiguration (DRS,
   RFC #138, NIC #6715).  Additional representation types may be defined
   later if there is a demonstrable need.

   Data representations are handled in FTP by a user specifying a
   representation type.  The type may also imply a transfer byte size.
   For example, in ASCII representation, the transfer byte size should
   be 8 bits, and any other byte size specification will result in

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   cancellation of the transfer request.  In image and Local Byte
   representations any byte size is possible.  The following data
   representation types are currently defined in FTP:

   1. ASCII        The sender converts data from its internal character
                   representation to the standard NVT ASCII form.  The
                   receiver converts the data from the standard form to
                   its own internal form.  The data is transferred in
                   the standard form.  The transfer byte size must be 8
                   bits.  This type would be used for transfer of text
                   files.  This is the default type, and it is recom-
                   mended that this type be implemented by all.

   2. EBCDIC       The sender transfers data using the EBCDIC character
                   code and 8-bit transfer byte size.  This type may be
                   used for efficient transfer of EBCDIC files between
                   systems which use EBCDIC for their internal character

   3. Image        The sender transforms data from contiguous bits to
                   bytes for transfer.  The receiver transforms the
                   bytes into bits, storing them contiguously indepen-
                   dent of the byte size chosen for data transfer.  With
                   record structure and block mode, the server might
                   need to pad each record for convenient storage.  This
                   padding is allowed at the end of a record, and should
                   be remembered by the server so it will be stripped
                   off when the file is retrieved by the user.  The pad-
                   ding transformation should be well publicized by the
                   server in case the user processes his file at the
                   server site.  Typical uses for the Image type are
                   transfer of executable programs between like
                   machines, and transfer of binary (non-text) data.  It
                   is recommended that this type be implemented by all
                   for some byte size, preferably including the 8 bit
                   byte size.

   4. Local Byte   This representation allows for efficient storage,
                   use, and retrieval of data.  The manner in which data
                   is to be transformed depends on the byte size for
                   data transfer, and the particular HOST being used.
                   The transformation scheme for different byte size is
                   to be well publicized by all server sites.  This
                   transformation shall be invertible (i.e., if a file
                   is stored using a certain transfer byte size, an
                   identical file must be retrievable using the same
                   byte size and representation type).  It is the user's
                   responsibility to keep track of the representation

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

                   type and byte size used for his transfer.  Typical
                   uses of the Local Byte type are in efficient storage
                   and retrieval of files, and transfer of structured
                   binary data.  This type may be identical to the Image
                   type for byte size which are integral multiples of or
                   factors of the computer word length.

   Representation type may also be affected by another attribute, the
   format.  For example, some printers can use ASA (Fortran) vertical
   format control procedures to transform printed data of type ASCII or
   EBCDIC.  Currently format may take one of two values.

   1. Unformatted  The representation type as specified is unaffected by
                   any format transformations.  This is the default

   2. Printfile    The server is to transform data of either ASCII or
                   EBCDIC type in accordance with ASA (Fortran) vertical
                   format control standards.  The data is to be
                   transferred in 8-bit bytes.

   A discussion of the ASA vertical format control appears in NWG/RFC
   189, Appendix C, and in Communications of the ACM, Vol. 7, No. 10, p.
   606, October 1964.  According to the ASA vertical format control
   standards, the first character of a formatted record is not printed
   but determines vertical spacing as follow:

      Character                  Vertical Spacing before printing

       Blank                       One line
         0                         Two lines
         1                         To first line of the next page
         +                         No advance

   In addition to the above four, there are more characters (defined in
   Appendix C, RFC 189) which represent an IBM extension to the ASA

   It should be noted that a serving host need not accept all represen-
   tation types and/or byte sizes, but it must inform the user request-
   ing an unacceptable type or size of this fact by sending an appropri-
   ate reply.

III.C.  File Structure and Transfer Modes

   The only file structures supported directly in FTP at the present
   time are record structures.  However, the use of record structures is
   not mandatory.  A user with no record structure in his file should be

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   able to store and retrieve his file at any HOST.  A user wishing to
   transmit a record structured file must send the appropriate FTP
   'STRU' command (the default assumption is no record structure).  A
   serving HOST need not accept record structures, but it must inform
   the user of this fact by sending an appropriate reply.  Any record
   structure information in the data stream may subsequently be dis-
   carded by the receiver.

   All data transfers must end with an EOF.  The EOF is defined by the
   data transfer mode.  For files that have record structures, an EOR is
   also defined by the transfer mode.  Only the transfer modes and
   representation type combinations that have EOR defined may be used
   for transfer of files with record structures.  Records may be of zero
   length but they must be contained in file boundaries.  The relation-
   ship between files and records is hierarchical but an EOF does not
   imply an EOR.

   The following data transfer modes are defined in FTP:

   1. Stream       The file is transmitted as a stream of bytes of the
                   specified byte size.  The EOF is signaled by closing
                   the data connection.  Any representation type and
                   byte size may be used in the stream mode with file
                   structure, but use of record structure limits the
                   type to ASCII or EBCDIC with or without Printfile
                   format.  The convention is that the ASCII character
                   CR (Carriage Return, Code 15 (octal)) followed by LF
                   (Line Feed, Code 12 (octal)) indicates an EOR for
                   ASCII representation type, and the EBCDIC character
                   NL (New Line, Code 15 (hex)) indicates an EOR for
                   EBCDIC type.  This is the default mode, and it is
                   recommended that this mode be implemented by all.

   2. Text         The file is ASCII text transmitted as a sequence of
                   8-bit bytes in the ASCII representation type, and
                   optional Printfile format.  Record structures are
                   allowed in this mode.  The EOR and EOF are defined by
                   the presence of special "TELNET-control" codes (,ost
                   significant bit set to one) in the data stream.  The
                   EOR code is 192 (octal 300, hex CO).  The EOF code is
                   193 (octal 301, hex C1).  The byte size for transfer
                   is 8 bits.

   (For ASCII type, text and stream modes are almost identical.)

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   Comparing the two, the advantages of "stream" mode are:

      1) The receiver need not scan the incoming bytes.

      2) It is usable with all data types.

   and the disadvantages are:
      1) Closing the data connection under error conditions can be
         misconstrued as an EOF in stream mode when in fact the data
         transfer was interrupted.  In text mode the EOF is sent expli-

      2) If record structure is specified in stream mode then CRLF
         implies EOR, and in order for CRLF to be sent as valid data it
         must be transformed, e.g., into CR NUL LF or LF CR.

   3. Block        The file is transmitted as a series of data blocks
                   preceded by one or more header bytes.  The header
                   bytes contain a count field, and descriptor code.
                   The count field indicates the total length of the
                   data block in bytes, thus marking the beginning of
                   the next data block (there are no filler bits).  The
                   descriptor code defines last file block (EOF), last
                   record block (EOR), restart marker (see Section
                   III.D), or suspect data (i.e., the data being
                   transferred is suspected of errors and is not reli-
                   able).  Record structures are allowed in this mode,
                   and any representation type or byte size may be used.

                   The header consists of the smallest integral number
                   of bytes whose length is greater than or equal to 24
                   bits.  Only the _least_ significant 24 bits (right-
                   justified) of header shall have information; the
                   remaining most significant bits are "don't care"
                   bits.  Of the 24 bits of header information, the 16
                   low order bits shall represent byte count, and the 8
                   high order bits shall represent descriptor codes as
                   shown below.

                            Integral data bytes >= 24
                   | Don't care    |   Descriptor  |  Byte Count  |
                   | 0 to 231 bits |     8 bits    |    16 bits   |

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

                   The following descriptor codes are assigned:

                   Code       Meaning
                   ----       -------
                    0         An ordinary block of data.
                    1         End of data block is EOR.
                    2         End of data block is EOF.
                    3         Suspected errors in data block.
                    4         Data block is a restart marker.

                   In the use of block mode it is possible for two or
                   more conditions requiring different descriptor codes
                   (suspected errors and either end of record or end of
                   file) to exist simultaneously.  Such a possibility
                   may be handled by sending a separate EOR or EOF block
                   with a zero byte count. (This is allowed by the pro-

                   The restart marker is embedded in the data stream as
                   an integral number of 8-bit bytes (representing
                   printable ASCII characters) right-justified in an
                   integral number of data bytes greater than 8 bits.
                   For example if the byte size is 7 bits, the restart
                   marker byte would be one byte right-justified per two
                   7-bit bytes as shown below:

                        Two 7-bit bytes
                   |          | Marker Char|
                   |          |    8 bits  |

                   For byte size of 16 bits or more, two or more marker
                   bytes shall be packed right-justified.  The end of
                   the marker may be delimited by the character SP (code
                   32.).  If marker characters do not exactly fit an
                   integral byte, the unused character slots should con-
                   tain the ASCII character SP (code 32.).  For example,
                   to transmit a six character marker in a 36-bit byte
                   size, the following three 36-bit bytes would be sent:

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

                   | Don't care  | Descriptor  |               |
                   |    12 bits  |  code=4     | Byte count=2  |

                   |    | Marker  | Marker  | Marker | Marker  |
                   |    | 8 bits  | 8 bits  | 8 bits | 8 bits  |

                   |    | Marker  | Marker  | SP     | SP      |
                   |    | 8 bits  | 8 bits  | 8 bits | 8 bits  |

   4. Hasp

                   The file is transmitted as a sequence of 8-bit bytes
                   in the standard Hasp-compressed data format (document
                   to be issued by Bob Braden, UCLA).  This mode
                   achieves considerable compression of data for print
                   files.  Record structures are allowed in the Hasp

   The following matrix summarizes the legal combinations of file
   transfer parameters.  The decimal integers represent legal byte sizes
   for each particular STRU-MODE-TYPE-FORM grouping absence of a number
   implies illegality.  Note that HASP mode is not included since it has
   never been defined.

           STRU           F               |        R
   TYPE   |\ MODE                         |     |     |      |
          |  \                            |     |     |      |
          |    \     S       T       B    |  S  |   T |   B  |
          | FORM +--------+-----+---------+-----+-----+------+
       A  |   U  |   8    |  8  |    8    |  8  |   8 |   8  |
          |      +--------+-----+---------+-----+-----+------+
          |   P  |   8    |  8  |    8    |  8  |   8 |   8  |
      E   |   U  |   8    |     |    8    |  8  |     |   8  |
          |      +--------+-----+---------+-----+-----+------+
          |   P  |   8    |     |    8    |  8  |     |   8  |
      I   |   U  | 1-255  |     | 1-255   |     |     |1-255 |
      L   |   U  | 1-255  |     | 1-255   |     |     |1-255 |

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

III.D  Error Recovery and Restart

   There is no provision for detecting bits lost or scrambled in data
   transfer.  This issue is perhaps handled best at the NCP level where
   it benefits most users.  However, a restart procedure is provided to
   protect user from system failures (such as failure of either HOST,
   FTP-process, or the IMP subnet).

   The restart procedure is defined only for the block mode of data
   transfer.  It requires the sender of data to insert a special marker
   code in the data stream with some marker information.  The marker
   information has meaning only to the sender, but must consist of
   printable ASCII characters.  The printable ASCII characters are
   defined to be octal codes 41 through 176 (i.e., not including codes 0
   through 37 and the characters SP and DEL).  The marker could
   represent a bit-count, a record-count, or any other information by
   which a system may identify a data checkpoint.  The receiver of data,
   if it implements the restart procedure, would then mark the
   corresponding position of this marker in the receiving system, and
   return this information to the user.

   In the event of a system failure, the user can restart the data
   transfer by identifying the marker point with the FTP restart pro-
   cedure.  The following examples illustrate the use of the restart

1.     When server is the sender of data, the server-FTP process inserts
       an appropriate marker block in the data stream at a convenient
       data point.  The user-FTP process, receiving the data, marks the
       corresponding data point in its file system and conveys the last
       known sender and receiver marker information to the user.  In the
       event of system failure, the user or user-FTP process restarts
       the server at the last server marker by sending a restart command
       with the server's marker code as its argument.  The restart com-
       mand is transmitted over the TELNET connection and is immediately
       followed by the command (such as store or retrieve) which was
       being executed when the system failure occurred.

2.     When user is the sender of data, the user-FTP process inserts the
       appropriate marker block in the data stream.  The server-FTP pro-
       cess, receiving the data, marks the corresponding data point in
       its file system.  The server does not store this marker but con-
       veys the last known sender and receiver marker information to the
       user over the TELNET connections by appropriate reply codes.  The
       user or the user-FTP process then restarts transfer in a manner
       identical to that described in the first example.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972


   The TELNET connections on which FTP commands and replies are
   transmitted are initiated by the user-FTP process via an ICP to a
   standard server socket.  FTP commands are then transmitted from user
   to server, and replies are transmitted from server to user.  The user
   file transfer functions involve sending the FTP commands, interpret-
   ing the replies received and transferring data over the data connec-
   tion in the specified manner.  The server file transfer functions
   involve accepting and interpreting FTP commands, sending replies,
   setting up the data connection, and transferring data.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

IV.A  FTP Commands

   FTP commands are ASCII strings terminated by the ASCII character
   sequence CRLF (Carriage Return followed by Line Feed).  The command
   codes themselves are ASCII alphabetic characters terminated by the
   ASCII character 'space' (octal code 40).  For convenience, the com-
   mand codes are defined to be four (or less) ASCII alphanumeric char-
   acters (including both upper and lower case alphabetic characters).
   The command codes and the semantics of commands are described in this
   section, but the detailed syntax of commands is specified in Section
   V.B, the reply sequences are discussed in Section V.C, and scenarios
   illustrating the use of commands are provided in Section V.D.

   FTP commands may be partitioned as those specifying access-control
   identifiers, data transfer parameters, or FTP service requests.  Cer-
   tain commands (such as ABOR, STAT, BYE) may be sent over the TELNET
   connections while a data transfer is in progress.  Some servers may
   not be able to monitor the TELNET and data connections simultane-
   ously, in which case these commands should be preceded by a TELNET
   SYNC to awaken the server. (For other servers this may not be neces-
   sary and the SYNC will be ignored.)

IV.A.1  Access Control Commands

   The following commands specify access control identifiers (command
   codes are shown in parentheses).

      User name (USER) - The argument field is an ASCII string identify-
      ing the user.  The user identification is that which is required
      by the server for access to its file system.  This command will
      normally be the first command transmitted by the user after the
      TELNET connections are made (some servers may require this).
      Additional identification information in the form of a password
      and/or an account command may also be required by some servers.
      Servers may allow a new USER command to be entered at any point in
      order to change the accounting information.  All parameters are
      unchanged and any file transfer in progress is completed under the
      old account.

      Password (PASS) - The argument field is an ASCII string identify-
      ing the user's password.  This command must be immediatly preceded
      by the user name command, and, for some sites, completes the user'
      s identification for access control.  Since password information
      is quite sensitive, it is desirable in general to "mask" it or
      suppress type out.  It appears that the server has no foolproof
      way to achieve this.  It is therefore the responsibility of the
      user-FTP process to hide the sensitive password information.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

      Account (ACCT) - The argument field is an ASCII string identifying
      the user's account.  The command is not necessarily related to the
      USER command, as some sites may require an account for login and
      others only for specific access, such as storing files.  In the
      latter case the command may arrive at any time.  There are two
      reply codes to differentiate these cases for the automaton: When
      account information is required for login and the server receives
      another command which he buffers, the legal response is reply code
      331 when an account is required for a specific transfer requested,
      the reply code 433 is returned and the request command is flushed.

      Reinitialize (REIN) - This command terminates a USER, flushing all
      I/O and account information, except to allow any transfer in pro-
      gress to be completed.  All parameters are reset to the default
      setting and the TELNET connection is left open.  A USER command is
      expected to follow.

      Logout (BYE) - This command terminates a USER and if file transfer
      is not in progress, closes the TELNET connection.  If file
      transfer is in progress, the connection will remain open for
      result response and will then close.  For "hot card-reader" mode
      the REIN command should be used instead.

      An unexpected close on the TELNET connection will cause the server
      to take the effective action of an abort (ABOR) and a logout

IV.A.2  Transfer Parameter Commands

   All data transfer parameters have default values, and the commands
   specifying data transfer parameters are required only if the default
   parameter values are to be changed.  The default value is the last
   specified value, or if no value has been specified, the standard
   default value as stated here.  This implies that the server must
   "remember" the applicable default values.  The commands may be in any
   order except that they must precede the FTP service request.  The
   following commands specify data transfer parameters

      Byte size (BYTE) - The argument is an ASCII-represented decimal
      integer (1 through 255), specifying the byte size for the data
      connection.  The default byte size is 8 bits.  The byte size is
      always 8 bits in the ASCII and EBCDIC representation types.  A
      server may reject specific byte size/type combinations by sending
      an error reply code in response to a transfer request command.

      Data socket (SOCK) - The argument is a HOST-socket specification
      for the data socket to be used in data connection.  There may be
      two data sockets, one from server to user and the other for user

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      to server data transfer.  An odd socket number defines a send
      socket and an even socket number defines a receive socket.  The
      default HOST is the user HOST to which TELNET connections are
      made.  The default data sockets are (U+4) and (U+5) where U is the
      socket number used in the TELNET ICP and the TELNET connections
      are on sockets (U+2) and (U+3).

      Listen (LSTN) - The argument is a single ASCII character code to
      specify the direction of the socket that the server must allocate
      for use as a data connection.  The server is to "listen" on the
      allocated socket when an appropriate transfer command is given.
      The following codes are assigned:

            S - send
            R - receive

      Representation Type (TYPE) - The argument is a single ASCII char-
      acter code specifying the representation types described in Sec-
      tion III.B.  The following codes are assigned for type:

            A - ASCII
            I - Image
            L - Local Byte
            E - EBCDIC

      The default representation type is ASCII.

      Format (FORM) - The argument is a single ASCII character code
      specifying the formats described in Section III.B. The following
      codes are assigned for format:

            U - Unformatted
            P - Printfile

      The default format is Unformatted.

      File Structure (STRU) - The argument is a single ASCII character
      code specifying file structure described in Section III.C.  The
      following codes are assigned for structure:

            F - File (no ecord structure)
            R - Record structure

      The default structure is File (ie. no records).

      Transfer Mode (MODE) - The argument is a single ASCII character
      code specifying the data transfer modes described in Section
      III.C.  The following codes are assigned for transfer modes:

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

            S - Stream (bytes, close is EOF)
            B - Block (header with descriptor and count)
            T - Text (TELNET control code for EOR, EOF)
            H - Hasp (specially formatted compressed data)

      The default transfer mode is Stream.

IV.A.3  FTP Service Commands

   The FTP service commands define the file transfer or the file system
   function requested by the user.  The argument of an FTP service com-
   mand will normally be a pathname.  The syntax of pathnames must con-
   form to server site conventions (with standard defaults applicable),
   except that ASCII characters must be used (in conformance with the
   TELNET Protocol).  The suggested default handling is to use the last
   specified device, directory or file name, or the standard default
   defined for local users.  The command may be in any order except that
   a "rename from" command, must be followed by a "rename to" command,
   and some servers may require an "allocate" command before a "store"
   command.  The data, when transferred in response to FTP service
   commands, shall always be sent over the data connection.  The follow-
   ing commands specify FTP service requests:

      Retrieve (RETR) - This command achieves the transfer of a copy of
      the file specified in the pathname, from server to user site.  The
      status and contents of the file at the server site shall be unaf-

      Store (STOR) - This command achieves the transfer of a copy of a
      file from user to server site.  If the file specified in the path-
      name exists at the server site, then its contents shall be
      replaced by the contents of the file being transferred.  A new
      file is created at the server site if the file specified in the
      pathname does not already exist.

      Append (with create) (APPE) - This command achieves the transfer
      of data from using to serving site.  If the file specified in the
      pathname exists at the server site, then the data transferred
      shall be appended to that file, otherwise the file specified in
      the pathname shall be created at the server site.

      Allocate (ALLO) - This command may required by some servers to
      reserve sufficient storage to accommodate the new file to be
      transferred.  The argument field shall be a decimal integer
      representing the number of bytes (of size specified by the byte
      size command) of storage to be reserved for the file.  This

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      command shall be followed by a store or append command.  The ALLO
      command should be treated as a NO-OP (no operation) by those
      servers which do not require that the maximum size of the file be
      declared beforehand.

      Restart (REST) - The argument field represents the server marker
      at which file transfer is to be restarted.  This command does not
      cause file transfer but "spaces" over the file to the specified
      data checkpoint.  This command shall be immediately followed by
      the appropriate FTP service command which shall cause file
      transfer to resume.

      Rename from - (RNFR) - This command specifies the file which is to
      be renamed.  This command must be immediately followed by a
      "rename to" command specifying the new file pathname.

      Rename to (RNTO) - This command specifies the new pathname of the
      file specified in the immediately preceding "rename from" command.
      Together the two commands cause a file to be renamed.

      Abort (ABOR) - This command indicates to the server to abort the
      previous FTP service command and any associated transfer of data.
      The abort command should be preceded by the TELNET SYNCH condition
      (indicated by the combination of the DATA MARK and the INS).  No
      action is to be taken if the previous command has been completed
      (including data transfer).  The TELNET connections are not to be
      closed by the server, but the data connection may be closed.  An
      appropriate reply should be sent by the server.

      Delete (DELE) - This command causes the file specified in the
      pathname to be deleted at the server site.  If an extra level of
      protection is desired (such as the query, "Do you really wish to
      delete?"), it should be provided by the user-FTP process.

      List (LIST) - This command causes a list to be sent from server to
      user site.  If the pathname specifies a directory, the server
      should transfer a list of files in the specified directory.  If
      the pathname specifies a file then server should send current
      information on the file.  A null argument implies the user's
      current working or default directory.  The data transfer is over
      the data connection in type ASCII or type EBCDIC.  (It is the user
      's responsibility to ensure the correct parameters.)

      NList (NLST) - This command causes a directory listing to be sent
      from server to user site.  The pathname should specify a directory
      and the server will return a stream of names of files and no other
      information.  The data will be transferred in ASCII or EBCDIC type
      over the data connection as valid pathname strings separated by

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      CRLF.  This command will allow automatic copying of an entire
      directory when used with the appropriate transfer commands.

      Status (STAT) - This command shall cause a status response to be
      sent over the TELNET connection in form of a reply.  The command
      may be sent during a file transfer (preceded by a TELNET SYNC) in
      which case the server will respond with the status of the opera-
      tion in progress, or it may be sent between file transfers.  In
      the latter case the command may have an argument field such as a
      pathname.  If the argument is a pathname, the command is analogous
      to the "list" command except that data shall be transferred in
      ASCII on the TELNET connection.  If a partial pathname is given,
      the server may respond with a list of file names or attributes
      associated with that specification.  If no argument is given, the
      server should return general status information about the server
      FTP process.  This should include current values of all transfer
      parameters and the status of connections.

      Help (HELP) - This command shall cause the server to send helpful
      information regarding its implementation status over the TELNET
      connection to the user.  The command may take an argument (e.g.
      any command name) and return more specific information as a
      response.  The reply is type 100, general system status.  It is
      suggested that HELP be allowed before entering a USER command.

      Mail File (MLFL) - The intent of this command is to enable a user
      site to mail data (in form of a file) to another user at the
      server site.  It should be noted that the files to be mailed are
      transmitted via the data connection in ASCII or EBCDIC type. (It
      is the user's responsibility to ensure that the type is correct.)
      These files should be appended to the destination user's mail by
      the server in accordance with serving HOST mail conventions.  The
      mail may be marked as sent from the particular using HOST and the
      user specified by the 'USER' command.  The argument field may con-
      tain one or more system or NIC idents (it is recommended that mul-
      tiple ident be allowed so the same mail can easily be sent to
      several users), or it may be empty.  If the argument field is
      empty or blank (one or more spaces), then the mail is destined for
      a printer or other designated place for site mail.  A NIC ident
      refers to the standard identification described in the NIC Direc-
      tory of Network Participants.  A serving host may keep a table
      mapping NIC indents into system idents, although NIC idents are
      not required in the implementation.  A system ident is the user's
      normal identification at the serving host.  The use of system
      idents would allow a network user to send mail to other users who
      do not have NIC identification but whose system ident is known.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

      Mail (MAIL) - This command allows a user to send mail that is not
      in a file over the TELNET connection.  The argument field may con-
      tain one or more system or NIC idents, or it may be empty.  The
      idents are defined as above for the MLFL command.  After the
      'MAIL' command is received, the server is to treat the following
      lines as text of the mail sent by the user.  The mail text is to
      be terminated by a line containing only a single period, that is,
      the character sequence ".CRLF" in a new line.  It is suggested
      that a modest volume of mail service should be free; i.e., it may
      be entered before a USER command.

IV.A.4 Miscellaneous Commands

      NoOP (NOOP) - This command does not affect any parameters or pre-
      viously entered command.  The server simply sends a no-op reply.

      Quote (QUOT) - This command allows the user to talk directly to
      the FTP-server.  After parsing this command, the user-FTP process
      will pass without examination all succeeding liners until the NQUO
      command is received.  Between these two commands the server will
      respond appropriately to his implementation and the user's

      NoQuote (NQUO) - This command returns the user and server
      processes to normal interactive mode.  Both QUOT and NQUO have
      reply codes to be sent by th server process to the user process to
      ensure agreement on the current mode.

   The quote commands provide a convenient method of testing server-
   implemented experimental commands.  The names of the latter should
   begin with an X, and can be listed in the system HELP reply.  It
   should be noted that the official command set is expandable; sugges-
   tions should go first to Alexander A. McKenzie (BBN).

IV.B  FTP Replies

   The server sends FTP replies over the TELNET connection in response
   to user FTP commands.  The FTP replies constitute the acknowledgment
   or completion code (including errors).  The FTP-server replies are
   formatted for human or program interpretation.  Single line replies
   consist of a leading three-digit numeric code followed by a space,
   followed by a one-line text explanation of the code.  For replies
   that contain several lines of text, the first line will have a lead-
   ing three-digit numeric code followed immediately by the ASCII char-
   acter "-" (Hyphen, Code 55 (octal)) and possibly some text.  All
   succeeding continuation lines except the last are constrained not to
   begin with three digits; the last line must repeat the numeric code
   of the first line and be followed immediately by a space.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   For example:

           100-First Line
           Continuation Line
           Another Line
           100 Last Line

   The numeric codes are assigned by groups and for ease of interpreta-
   tion by programs in a manner consistent with other protocols such as
   the RJE protocol.  The three digits of the code are to be interpreted
   as follows:

   a) The first digit specifies type of response as indicated below:

       000 These replies are purely informative and constitute neither a
           positive nor a negative acknowledgment.

       1xx Informative replies to status inquiries.  These constitute a
           positive acknowledgment to the status command.

       2xx Positive acknowledgment of previous command or other success-
           ful action.

       3xx Incomplete information.  Activity cannot proceed without
           further specification and input.

       4xx Unsuccessful reply.  The request is correctly specified but
           the server is unsuccessful in correctly fulfilling it.

       5xx Incorrect or illegal command.  The command or its parameters
           were invalid or incomplete from a syntactic viewpoint, or the
           command is inconsistent with a previous command.  The command
           in question has been completely ignored.

       6xx-9xx Reserved for future expansion.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   b) The second digit specifies the general category to which the
       response refers:

       x00-x29 General purpose replies, not assignable to other

       x30 Primary access.  Informative replies to the "log-on" attempt.

       x40 Secondary access.  The primary server is commenting on its
       ability to access a secondary service.

       x5x FTP results

       x6x RJE results.

       x7x-x9x Reserved for future expansion.

   c) The final digit specifies a particular message type.  Since the
       code is designed for an automation process to interpret, it is
       not necessary for every variation of a reply to have a unique
       number.  Only the basic meaning of replies need have unique
       numbers.  The text of a reply can explain the specific reason for
       that reply to a human user.

       Each TELNET line delimited by a numeric code and CRLF (or group
       of text lines bounded by coded lines) that is sent by the server
       is intended to be a complete reply message.  It should be noted
       that the text of replies is intended for a human user.  Only the
       reply codes and in some instances the first line of text are
       intended for programs.

The assigned reply codes relating to FTP are:

000 General information message (site, time of day, etc.).
010 Message from system operator.
030 Server availability information.
050 FTP commentary or user information.
100 System status reply.
110 System busy doing...
150 File status reply
151 Directory listing reply.
200 Last command received correctly.
201 An ABORT has terminated activity, as requested.
202 Abort request ignored, no activity in progress.
230 User is "logged in". May proceed.
231 User is "logged out". Service terminated.
232 Logout command noted, will complete when transfer done.
233 User is "logged out". Parameters reinitialized.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

250 FTP file transfer started correctly.
251 FTP Restart-marker reply.

        Text is : MARK yyyy = mmmm
        where yyyy is user's data stream marker (yours)
        and mmmm is server's equivalent marker (mine)
        (Note the spaces between the markers and '=')

252 FTP transfer completed correctly.
253 Rename completed.
254 Delete completed.
255 FTP server data socket reply

        Text is: SOCK nnnn
        where nnnn is a decimal integer representing
        the server socket for data connection

256 Mail completed.
300 Connection greeting message, awaiting input.
301 Current command incompleted (no CRLF for long time).
330 Enter password
331 Enter account (if account required as part of login
350 Enter mail, terminate by a line with only a '.'
400 This service not implemented.
401 This service not accepting user now, goodbye.
430 Log-on time or tries exceeded, goodbye.
431 Log-on unsuccessful.  Usre and/or password invalid.
432 User not valid for this service.
433 Cannot transfer files without valid account.  Enter account.
434 Log-out forced by operator action.  Phone site.
435 Log-out forced by system problem.
436 Service shutting down, goodbye.
450 FTP: File not found.
451 FTP: File access denied to you.
452 FTP: File transfer incomplete, data connection closed.
453 FTP: File transfer incomplete, insufficient storage space.
454 FTP: Cannot connect to your data socket.
455 FTP: File system error not covered by other reply codes.
456 FTP: Name duplication rename failed.
457 FTP: Transfer parameters in error.
500 Last command line completely unrecognized.
501 Syntax of last command is incorrect.
502 Last command incomplete, parameters missing.
503 Last command invalid (ignored), illegal parameter combination.
504 Last command invalid, action not possible at this time.
505 Last command conflicts illegally with previous command(s).

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

506 Requested action not implemented by the server.
507 Catchall error reply.
550 Bad pathname specification (e.g., syntax error).


   In order to make FTP workable without needless error messages, the
   following minimum implementation is required for servers:

TYPE -- ASCII  (with 8-bit bytes)
                 MODE -- Stream
                 STRUCTURE -- File
                              Record (with ASCII type and CRLF for EOR)
                 FORM -- Unformatted
                 COMMANDS -- USER, BYE, SOCK
                             TYPE, BYTE, MODE, STRU, FORM
                                 for the default values
                             RETR, STOR

   The initial default values for transfer parameters are:

      TYPE -- ASCII
                      BYTE -- 8
                      MODE -- Stream
                      STRU -- File
                      FORM -- Unformatted

V.A Connections

   The server-FTP process at the server site shall "listen" on Socket 3,
   via its server-TELNET.  The user or user-FTP process at the user site
   shall initiate the full-duplex TELNET connections via its user-TELNET
   performing the ARPANET standard initial connection protocol (ICP) to
   server socket 3.  Servers may specify that interaction over the TEL-
   NET connections be line-at-a-time with local echo.  The server is not
   obliged to provide remote echo and may ignore TELNET control charac-
   ters; he should not, however, return error response to the latter.
   All editing of command lines similarly must be local.  The TELNET
   connections shall be closed by the user site upon completion of use
   and receipt of the last server reply.

   The user site must "listen" on the specified data socket or sockets
   (a send and/or a receive socket).  The server site shall initiate the
   data connection using the specified data socket and byte size.  The
   direction of data connection and the data socket used shall be

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   determined by the FTP service command.  The server shall send a reply
   to the user indicating the server data socket so that the user may
   ensue the security of data transfer.  This can be done at any time
   prior to the first transfer of data over a data connection.  It
   should be emphasized that the user-FTP should not wait for a 255
   (server data socket) reply before doing the "listen", since there is
   no guarantee that the reply will arrive before the user site receives
   the initiating RFC.  The security check can be done when the reply
   arrives and the data connection closed if it was made to a socket
   other than the one specified.

   The data connection shall be closed by the server site under the con-
   ditions described in Section III.A.  If the server wishes to close
   the connection in modes where that is not required, it is recommended
   that the close be sent immediately after the file transfer is com-
   pleted rather than after a new transfer command is received, because
   the user or server may have to test the state of the socket before
   doing a "listen" or "init".  The server should in general send a
   reply before closing the data connection to avoid problems at the
   user end, though, for reasons stated above, the user-FTP should not
   wait for the reply before doing his close.

V.B  Commands

   The commands are ASCII character strings transmitted over the TELNET
   connections as described in section IV.A.  The command functions and
   semantics are described in sections IV.A.1, IV.A.2, IV.A.3, and
   IV.A.4.  The command syntax is specified here.

   The commands begin with a command code followed by an argument field.
   The command codes are four or less ASCII alphabetic characters.
   Upper and lower case alphabetic characters are to be treated identi-
   cally.  Thus any of the following may represent the retrieve command:

   RETR    Retr    retr   ReTr     rETr

   This also applies to any symbols representing parameters values, such
   as A or a for ASCII TYPE.  The command codes and the argument fields
   are separated by one or more spaces.

   The argument field consists of a variable length ASCII character
   string ending with the character sequence CRLF (Carriage Return
   immediately followed by Line Feed).  In the following section on syn-
   tax it should be stressed that all characters in the argument field
   are ASCII characters.  Thus a decimal integer shall mean an ASCII
   represented decimal integer.

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

   The following are all the currently defined FTP commands:

      USER <username> CRLF

      PASS <password> CRLF

      ACCT <acctno> CRLF


      BYE CRLF

      BYTE <byte size> CRLF

      SOCK <HOST-socket> CRLF

      LSTN <direction> CRLF

      TYPE <type code> CRLF

      FORM <form code> CRLF

      STRU <structure code> CRLF

      MODE <mode code> CRLF

      RETR <pathname> CRLF

      STOR <pathname> CRLF

      APPE <pathname> CRLF

      ALLO <decimal integer> CRLF

      REST <marker> CRLF

      RNFR <pathname> CRLF

      RNTO <pathname> CRLF


      DELE <pathname> CRLF

      LIST <pathname> CRLF

      NLST <pathname> CRLF

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RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

      STAT <pathname> CRLF

      HELP <string> CRLF

      MLFL <users> CRLF

      MAIL <users> CRLF




   The syntax of the above argument fields (using BNF notation where
   applicable) is:

      <username> ::= <string>

      <password> ::= <string>

      <acctno> ::= <string>

      <string> ::= <empty>/<char>/<char><string>

      <char> ::= any of the 128 ASCII characters except CR and LF.

      <marker> ::= <pr string>

      <pr string> ::= <empty>/<pr char>/<pr char> <pr string>

      <pr char> ::= any ASCII code 33 through 126

      <byte size> ::= any decimal integer 1 through 255.

      <HOST-socket> ::= <socket>/HOST number>,<socket>

      <HOST number> ::= a decimal integer specifying an ARPANET HOST

      <socket> ::= decimal integer between 0 and (2**32)-1

      <direction> ::= S/R

      <form code> ::= U/P

      <type code> ::= A/E/I/L

      <structure code> ::= F/R

McKenzie                                                       [Page 31]

RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

      <mode code> ::= S/B/T/H

      <pathname> ::= <string>

      <decimal integer> ::= <digit>/<digit><decimal integer>

      <digit> ::= 0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9

      <empty> ::= the null string (specifies use the default).

      <users> ::= <user>|<user,<users>

      <user> ::= <empty>|<NIC ident>|<sys ident>

      <NIC ident> ::= <string>

      <sys ident> ::= <string>

V.C  Sequencing of Commands and Replies

   The communication between the user and server is intended to be an
   alternating dialogue.  As such, the user issues an FTP command and
   the server responds with a prompt primary reply.  The user should
   wait for this initial primary success or failure response before
   sending further commands.

   A second type of reply is sent asynchronously with respect to user
   commands.  These replies may, for example, report on the progress or
   completion of file transfer and as such are secondary replies to file
   transfer commands.

   The third class of replies are informational and spontaneous replies
   which may arrive at any time.  These replies are listed below as

McKenzie                                                       [Page 32]

RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972


COMMAND              SUCCESS       FAIL
-------              -------       ----
USER                 230,330       430-432,500-505,507
PASS                 230,331       430-432,500-507
ACCT                 230           430-432,500-507
REIN                 232,233       401,436,500-507
   Secondary Reply   300
BYE                  231,232       430-432,500-505,507
BYTE                 200,331       500-507
SOCK                 200,331       500-505,507
LSTN                 255,331       500-507
TYPE                 200,331       500-507
FORM                 200,331       500-507
STRU                 200,331       500-507
MODE                 200,331       500-507

RETR                 250,331       433,450,451,454,455,500-505,507,550
   Secondary Reply   252           452
STOR                 250,331       433,451,454,455,457,500-505,507,550
   Secondary Reply   252           452,453
APPE                 250,331       433,451,454,455,457,500-507,550
   Secondary Reply   252           452,453
ALLO                 200,331       500-507
REST                 200,331       500-507
RNFR                 200,331       433,450,451,455,500-507,550
RNTO                 253,331       433,450,451,455,456,500-505,507,550
ABOR                 201,202,331   500-507
DELE                 254,331       433,450,451,455,500-507,550
LIST                 250,331       433,450,451,454,455,457,500-507,550
   Secondary Reply   252           452
NLST                 250,331       433,450,451,454,455,457,500-507
   Secondary Reply   252           452
STAT                 100,110,150,  450,451,454,455,500-507,550
HELP                 000,030,050,  500-507
MLFL                 250,331       433,450,451,454,455,457,500-507
   Secondary Reply   252           452,453
MAIL                 331,350       433,450,451,455,500-507
   Secondary Reply   256
NOOP                 200           500-505,507
QUOT                 200,331       500-507
NQUO                 200           500-505,507

Spontaneous          0xx,300,301   400,401,434-436
Replies              251,255

McKenzie                                                       [Page 33]

RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

V.D  Typical FTP Scenarios

   1. TIP User wanting to transfer file from HOST X to local printer:

      a) TIP user opens TELNET connections by ICP to HOST X, socket 3.

      b) The following commands and replies are exchanged:

         TIP                            HOST X
         ---                            ------

         USER username CRLF ---------->
         <----------330 Enter Password CRLF

         PASS password CRLF ---------->
         <----------230 User logged in CRLF

         SOCK 65538 CRLF    ---------->
         <----------200 Command received OK CRLF

         RETR this.file CRLF ---------->
         <----------255 SOCK 5533 CRLF

         (HOST X initiates data connection to
          TIP socket 65538, i.e., PORT 1 receive)

         <----------250 File transfer started

         BYE CRLF   ----------------->
         <----------252 File transfer completed

      c) HOST X closes the TELNET and data connections.

      Note: The TIP user should be in line mode.

   2. User at HOST U wanting to transfer files to/from HOST S:

      In general the user would communicate to the server via a mediat-
      ing user-FTP process.  The following may be a typical scenario.
      The user-FTP prompts are shown in parentheses, '---->' represents
      commands from HOST U to HOST S, and '<----' represents replies
      from HOST S to HOST U.

McKenzie                                                       [Page 34]

RFC 454                  File Transfer Protocol                July 1972

Local Commands by User            Action Involved
----------------------            ---------------

ftp (host) multics CR             ICP to HOST S, socket 3,
                                  establishing TELNET connections.
username Doe CR                   USER Doe CRLF ---->
                                  <---- 330 password CRLF
password mumble CR                PASS mumble CRLF ---->
                                  <---- 230 Doe logged in. CRLF
retrieve (local type) ASCII CR
(local pathname) test 1 CR        User-FTP opens local file in ASCII.
(for.pathname) test.p11 CR        RETR test.p11 CRLF
                                  <---- 255 SOCK 1233 CRLF
                                  Server makes data connection to (U+4).
                                  <---- 250 File transfer starts CRLF
                                  <---- 252 File transfer complete CRLF
type ImageCR                      TYPE I CRLF ---->
                                  <---- 200 Command OK CRLF
byte 36CR                         BYTE 36 CRLF ---->
                                  <---- 200 Command OK CRLF
store (local type) image CR
(local pathname) file dump CR     User-FTP opens local file in Image.
(for.pathname) >udd>cn>fd CR      STOR >udd>cn>fd CRLF ---->
                                  <---- 451 Access denied CRLF
terminate                         <---- 231 Doe logged out CRLF
                                  Server closes all connections.

       [ This RFC was put into machine readable form for entry ]
          [ into the online RFC archives by Via Genie 03/00 ]

McKenzie                                                       [Page 35]

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